VI. Vascular Malformations
There are four major categories of vascular anomalies: arteriovenous malformations (most common), cavernous angiomas, capillary telangiectasias, and venous angiomas. These lesions are found in about 5% of patients at autopsy. They are generally asymptomatic. Clinical manifestations occur most often in young people. In fact, a vascular malformation would be the most likely cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in a child. The arteriovenous malformation is most often clinically significant.
A. Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM) (see image)
- Tangles of abnormal vessels or channels of various sizes with thin walls; vessels are separated by gliotic neural parenchyma
- Developmental (congenital) origin
- Bleeding most common in 10-30 year age group
- Most often located in cerebral hemispheres
2. Clinical Signs: seizures, headache, focal neurological signs.