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VII. Hypertensive Cerebrovascular Disease

The effects of hypertension on the brain include hypertensive hemorrhage, as discussed previously, lacunar infarcts, and hypertensive encephalopathy.   Lacunes or lacunar infarcts (small infarcts) are the result of arteriolar pathology, and occur mainly in the basal ganglia, thalamus and subcortical white matter. 

These vascular lesions greatly accentuate the severity of dementia in Alzheimer's disease; thus, reducing risk factors for small, deep brain infarcts enables greater cognitive ability in patients with lesions of Alzheimer's disease.